Distinctions between a task-oriented innovator and a social-emotional innovator have filled the pages of academic literature for more than a half-century. But recent research strongly suggests the variation has a base inside our brains-which we can be either analytical or empathetic, however, not both at the same time-researchers at Case Western Reserve University record.
The managerial world has long kept that a head must be either one type or the other. The failure of management and graduate schools and the business world most importantly to value and develop both features result in damage ranging from inefficient operations to unethical decision-making, the analysts contend. Richard Boyatzis, professor of organizational behavior at Case Western Reserve’s Weatherhead School of Management and a study author. Boyatzis did the study with Anthony Jack, assistant professor of cognitive research at Case Western Reserve, and Kylie Rochford, a PhD college student in organizational behavior.
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Researchers found the brain consists of what’s called the “Task Positive Network (TPN),” which is analytical and task-oriented, and the “Default Mode Network (DMN),” which is empathetic and social. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on dozens of subjects, Jack has shown both networks tend to suppress each other when presented with technical or social problems to solve.
The brain constantly cycles between the two networks as the subject is at rest. This see-sawing activity is more powerful in people who are healthy and have higher IQ psychologically. Jack found that also, when subjects employed both networks at the same time, the subject was typically being manipulative or anti-social rather than a more balanced thinker. But the long-term consequences of the cultural bias are damaging. Management research over years shows each mode of thinking has advantages and downsides.
Being task-oriented leads to focus, solving problems and efficient execution of clearly defined objectives. That is desirable, Jack highlights, whenever a surgeon is targeted on being precise with an incision rather than on the pain of the incision will cause. But research shows that focusing exclusively on completing tasks-or on underneath line-squashes creativity, hinders ethical understanding, openness, and new ideas, and harms employee morale.
Being an empathetic head can increase worker inspiration and engagement, encourage creativity and is essential for moral decision-making. But a social-only focus results in a lack of attention to goals, which is inefficient when the task requirements are clear and the goal is to execute them, Jack said. Further, workers’ perceptions of a leader golf swing with the circumstances.
Past management studies show that workers understand task-oriented bosses as effective when they have a clear job to get done, and poor market leaders when they appear to focus only on short-run result. Workers recognized bosses centered on work-human relationships as effective when they demonstrated trust in the employees and were primarily worried about developing workers’ talents.
But these same market leaders were seen as inadequate when they seemed to be passive with regard to a task at hand. Boyatzis said, for example, the usual step to learning to be a college primary is to be a helper principal first. Split leadership roles are common, from parenting to CEOs. Finding a leader who is exceptional at both is rarer, but it is possible, Boyatzis said. The researchers say the challenge for management and education training is to help people cultivate both skill models, so leaders can cycle fluidly between the two systems and better perceive when each setting of thinking is appropriate. They suggest that organizations provide management applicants with coaching and training in both domains.
They recommend using simulations to permit leaders-in-training to apply moving backwards and forwards between task-focused and social networks. The candidates should also be asked to follow a career path that invokes these networks differentially. For instance, applicants may develop the DMN by splitting time on marketing projects and on training and developing people; and TPN by hanging out in finance, information technology, and quality guarantee. The researchers are actually devising experiments to investigate how people change back and forth between the networks, regarding analytical or sociable tasks they’re shown. Also, they are investigating personality factors which relate to the individual differences in the propensity to use one network or the other for specific situations.
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